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give an ore of copper mining equipment all products

give an ore of copper mining equipment all products

s durability.) Copper and bronze were employed for the making of mirrors by most of the Mediterranean civilizations of the Bronze Age period. The obliteration of Carthage by the Romans has obscured developments in Northern Africa at that time. It is only quite recently that evidence of the considerable engineering skills...

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The invention of printing increased the demand for copper because of the ease with which copper sheets could be engraved for use as printing plates to give accurate reproduction of illustrations and maps. In Germany, playing card designs were engraved on copper as far back as 1430. Copper plates have long been adopted as the best means of engraving maps. The first known maps printed from copper plates are two Italian editions, dated 1472, by the geographer Ptolemy. Copper or bronze wire then became a very important product, being vital for the weaving industry. The use of copper for sheathing the hulls of wooden boats was developed initially to prevent attacks on the timbers in subtropical waters by the teredo worm but it was subsequently found that copper clad hulls also resist marine biofouling. This useful property prevented the heavy drag caused by the growth of weed that the speed of ships. (It has been reported that Lord Nelson39;s victory at Trafalgar resulted in part f...

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The oldest methods for removing rock from underground mines were the sledgehammer and wedge and the equally ancient technique of fire setting. In the latter case a fire set up against a rock face would produce thermal expansion stresses the rock would either crumble naturally or could be shattered by water quenching. It was some time after the Islamic world introduced blasting powders from China to Europe in the 13th Century that explosives were first used specifically for mining. Today the old mining techniques have been replaced almost entirely by blasting with safe modern explosives and the use of heavy duty mechanical cutting equipment, where the rock is soft enough to merit such treatment.

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Introduction to Copper: ApplicationsIntroduction to Copper: Types of CopperIntroduction to Copper: Fact Sheets

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Copper Mining and Processing: Processing Copper Ores Superfund

Oxide ores are generally processed using hydrometallurgy. This process uses aqueous solutions to extract and purify copper from copper oxide ores at ordinary temperatures, usually in three steps: heap leaching, solvent extraction, and electrowinning. Heap Leachingis the process of using percolating chemical solutions to leach out metals. Heap leaching is very commonly used for low grade ore, which would otherwise not be economical to send through a milling process. Following mining, transporting, and crushing to a consistent gravel or golf ball size, the crushed ore is piled into a heap on top of an impenetrable layer, on a slight slope. The leaching reagent is sprayed through sprinklers on top of the heap pile and allowed to trickle down through the heap, where it dissolves the copper from the ore. The resulting pregnant leach solution of sulfuric acid and copper sulfate is collected in a small pool. The copper compound can now be seen at conc...

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Sulfide ores are generally processed using pyrometallurgy, the extraction and purification of metals by processes involving the application of heat. This process uses a series of physical steps and high temperatures to extract and purify copper from copper sulfide ores, in four basic steps: 1) froth flotation, 2) thickening, 3) smelting, and 4) electrolysis. Following mining, transporting, and crushing to a consistent gravel or golf ball size, the crushed ore is further processed at a mill using secondary crushers, and reduced to pebbles, and finally to fine sand. After the copper ore is crushed, liquid is added to make it a slurry. The slurry is a mix of valuable copper ore minerals and worthless rock, called gangue . The slurry is placed in a tank and a process called froth floatation is used to separate the copper minerals from the gangue. Chemical reagents called collectors are added to the slurry and bind to the copper particles, making them hydrophobic,...

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In addition to processing copper ores, new and old copper scrap or copper alloys can be melted, re purified, and recycled into new components. It is estimated that such recycling supplies 50% of copper used in the copper industry . In 2010, 770,000 metric tons of copper were recycled, at an estimated value of nearly six billion dollars .

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