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flotation cell with wide range of appliion

flotation cell with wide range of appliion

Froth Flotation Applications Mineral Processing amp; Metallurgy

The function of flotation froths or bubbles does not vary greatly whether the type of flotation be agglomeration, froth or foam flotation. The bubbles are expected to function, in addition to other tasks, as a transport medium. The method in which the transport is carried out will vary but particle or ion movement in a planned direction is always important. Characteristics of flotation froths or bubbles can vary from the relatively stable air bubbles generated for agglomeration and froth flotation to the less stable watery type bubble preferred in foam fractionation and ion flotation. Clark reports studies on the use of electrical conductivity to measure the expansion factor of foam. Expansion factor is defined as the ratio of foam volume Microscopic studies of flotation bubbles reveal many interesting facets on how bubbles float their load. Small bubbles present a greater total surface area and therefore provide a greater lifting force. Stable and brittle froth characteristics al...

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The date of the real beginning of foam fractionation is not clearly known. The work of F. Schutz published in 1937 indicates an early discovery of the principles involved. Schutz showed that hemoglobin could be separated from serum by foam fractionation. In 1949, Schutz published information on the methods and principles of fractionation by adsorption and crystallization on foam. A paper by Kevorkian and Gaden, Jr. in 1957 introduced the route to the Foamet Process while Dr. Sebbas work in South Africa resulted in the ion flotation process. According to a Wall Street Journal release in 1959, Armour and Company have assisted in patenting the use of ion flotation for processing sea water with coverage in the United States and 31 other nations. Both foam separation and ion flotation take advantage of the fact that, in a liquid mixture, surface active components are preferentially adsorbed at gas liquid interfaces. Also, surface inactive components concentrate in the bulk liquid...

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The field of application of non selective bulk flotation to a multitude of chemical and waste processing problems is expanding rapidly. The reference non selective is intended to indicate flotation processes wherein a solid phase or phases are removed from a liquid phase. Whether one or many different solids are present in the pulp, all may report to the froth in bulk flotation. In many applications of bulk flotation, a special type flotation cell is required. Often it is desirable to utilize dissolved gas in the pulp or the so called vacuum flotation approach. Baum and Hurst discussed dissolved gas flotation theory and flotation cell design for municipal and industrial waste flotation at Purdue University in 1953. They recommended cell depths of 4 to 6 feet and cell lengths of two to three times the width when flows are in excess of 50 gpm and less than 2000 gpm. Flows smaller or larger than this necessitate a different relationship. According to Baum and Hurst, applications...

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Many of the known mineral species are inorganic chemicals. A chemical compound may be defined as a substance composed of two or more elements combined according to the laws of chemical combination. Now the mineral formation processes do not always appear to be good chemical law abiding citizens and this accounts for some of the irregularities noted in some mineral species. The flotation process has long been competitive with other unit processes for the separation and recovery of a multitude of inorganic chemicals. In some of the examples that follow, the separation noted may involve a true mineral specie, but most of the examples involve either an unusual mineral or a man made chemical compound. A flotation plant in Akranes, Iceland, processes a minus 28 mesh mixture of mollusk shell fragments and tuff to recover a froth product containing 90 to 95% calcium carbonate. The unusual precaution of exchanging fresh water for sea water is required before the flotation step is attempte...

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Many of the chemicals used as flotation reagents are of organic origin. The important phosphate rock flotation process is usually initiated by an anionic flotation step with tall oil or tall oil soap as the collector reagent. Tall oil is a by product of the paper industry. In spite of the long history of use of organic chemicals in flotation processes as reagents, there have been relatively few applications of the flotation process to recover or separate organic materials from one another or from inorganic compounds. Process engineers from Australia have reported on the commercial use of flotation to recover wool wax from wool scour liquors. Mechanically agitated cells are used with several froth cleaner stages. Wash water is added in the cleaner stages to further purify the wax froth product. The concentrate contains 20% wax after draining. Final upgrading of the wax is accomplished by dispersion in an alkaline solution and centrifugal separation. The flotation process increased ov...

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Gaudin and co workers published results of their work carried out for the U. S. Army Chemical Corps on the separation of microorganisms by flotation. A pneumatic flotation cell of new design was developed to facilitate work on bacterial pulps which exhibited intensive frothing characteristics. Mechanically agitated sub aeration cells were also used in some tests. The flotation cells were sterilized between tests with sodium hypochlorite solutions. The choice of flotation vessel depended upon the inherent frothing properties of the sediment being tested and upon the quantity of feed available. The pneumatic cell was utilized with feeds that frothed excessively or when large quantities of spore sediment were available. A sub aeration cell was used for small volume samples. As is true in some mineral flotation processes, Gaudin found that heating of the spore preparation and then cooling to room temperature prior to flotation often aided in the separation. Other factors which influence...

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Flotation Cells Mineral Processing amp; Metallurgy

Sub A Flotation Cells have been developed over the intervening years since 1927 until today there are over 26,000 cells in operation. Flotation cells are standard equipment for an ever widening range of metallurgical and industrial problems. They are being used in plants of all types and sizes and they are giving excellent results at minimum cost at tonnages of a few tons up to 35,000 tons per 24 hours. To take care of the wide range of problems confronting the flotation process, the Sub As are built in a wide and flexible range of commercial sizes, from the No. 8 through the No. 12, No. 15, No. 18, No. 18 Special, No. 21, No. 21 Deep, No. 24 and the No. 30. There is a particular size cell for every problem and tonnage, with each cell having incorporated into its design features to take care of any condition. This is the basis on which Sub A Cells have been designed. Standard cells are as follows: The construction of the Sub A Standard Flotation Cellis with double welded ste...

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The widespread success of the Sub A Flotation Cell is attributed to the basic qualities of the design of this type Flotation Cell. Successful metallurgy results from the distinctive gravity flow feature, which assures positive circulation of all pulp fractions with reagents from cell to cell and hence results in high efficiency.

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The passage of pulp through the cell and the action created in the impeller zone draws air down the stationary standpipe and from the partition along the feed pipe. This positive suction of air gives the ideal condition for average flotation and the action in the impeller zone thoroughly mixes the air with the pulp and reagents. As this action proceeds, a thoroughly aerated live pulp is produced and furthermore, as this mixture is ground together by the impeller action, the pulp is intimately diffused with exceedingly small air bubbles which support the largest number of mineral particles. For particular problems the aeration in the Sub A can be augmented by the application of Supercharging, whereby fully controlled air under low pressure is diffused into the pulp. This feature is accomplished by the introduction of air from a blower or turbo compressor through the standpipe connection into the aerating zone where it is premixed with the pulp by the impeller action. This supe...

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The capacity of a flotation cell, treating any ore, depends upon facts and conditions which can best be determined by experience and test work. The pulp density and flotation contact period required materially affect the capacity of a Flotation Cell. With these factors known from previous work or test results, the size machine can be determined. Three conditions are factors in determining the proper size cell and number of cells.

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PROBLEM 1How many No. 15 Sub A Cells are required to treat 50 tons of gold or lead ore per day, with treatment time 12 minutes, dilution 3 to 1, and sp. gr. 3.0 Tons x Treatment time /Tabulated tonnage figure = 50 x 12/162 = 3.7 cells ANSWERThe result is 3.7 cells, thus use 4 No. 15 Sub A Cells. PROBLEM 2How many No. 18 Sp. Sub A Cells are required to treat 125 tons of lead zinc ore per day, with treatment time 14 minutes for the lead, dilution 3 to 1, and with treatment time 16 minutes for the zinc, dilution 3½ to 1, and sp. gr. 3.4 ANSWER 125 X 14/327 = 5.4, thus use 6 No. 18 Sp. Cells. ANSWER 125 X16/281 = 7.2, thus use 8 No. 18 Sp. Cells.

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Continuous 24 hour per day service depends upon the mechanical design and construction of a Flotation Cell. There is no unit so rugged, nor so well built to meet the demands of the process, as the Flotation Cell. The ruggedness of each cell is necessary to give long life and to meet the requirements of the process. Numerous competitive tests all over the world have conclusively proved the real worth of these cells to many mining operators who demand Maximum results at the lowest cost. The location of the feed pipe and the stationary hood over the rotating impeller account for the simplicity of the Sub A cell construction. These parts eliminate swirling around the shaft and top of the impeller, reduce power load, and improve metallurgical results. Improvements in construction of Sub A cells during the last ten years have been gradually made as a result of plant scale testing and through suggestions from the mining fraternity. Today the Sub A is mechanically unexcelled with...

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Cell liners fit easily into the cell and consist of four cast iron liners and a rubber bottom liner. This bottom liner consists of a rubber compound similar to that used on the molded rubber parts, firmly bonded to a steel backing so that it does not rip or blister. This liner is held in place at the edges by the side liners. Cell drainage is through an easily accessible port at the back of each cell. A small recirculation gate is provided near the top of each cell so that if desired, a portion of the pulp can be removed from the middling zone and returned to the impeller for retreatment. This recirculation feature influences the production of high grade concentrates in some cases. A gate is provided for this recirculation opening so that an adjustment of the zone and amount of recirculation can be varied. Flotation Cells are provided with openings in the partition plates for by passing the pulp from cell to cell without the pulp circulating through each hood feed pipe. In normal op...

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Each Sub A Cell is provided with an air bonnet on the shaft assembly so that low pressure air may be connected if desired. To assure complete diffusion of air in the pulp an automatic seal is built in each casting. When desired, a discharge may be taken at partitions on Sub A Flotation Cells by reversing the casting and providing a special plate. Feed may enter any cell of a Flotation Cell, through the front or back. The hand of the Sub A may be easily changed in the field by reversing the position of the casting with plate and partition plate. The hood assembly is turned through 180 degrees and the feed liner is changed with the liner in the opposite segment. Source:This article is a reproduction of an excerpt of In the Public Domain documents held in 911Metallurgy Corps private library.

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