UNIVERSITY GRANTS COMMISSION
Subject: Anthropology Code No. : 07
Unit – I
History, development, aim and scope of Anthropology, relationship with other sciences, different
branches of Anthropology (including Linguistic Anthropology) and their interrelationship.
Research methodology and methods: Concepts of epistemology, ontology and theoretical
perspectives. Types of research (qualitative and quantitative), research design, hypothesis.
Fieldwork and fieldwork tradition; Ethnography, Observation, Interview, Case Study, Life
History, Focus group, PRA, RRA, Genealogical Method, Schedules and Questionnaires,
Grounded Theory, Exploration and Excavation, GIS.
Statistics: concept of variables, sampling, measures of central tendency and dispersion,
parametric and nonparametric bivariate and multivariate (linear regression and logistic
regression) statistical tests.
Techniques of Analysis: Content analysis, Discourse analysis and Narratives.
Unit – II
Lamarckism, Neo-Lamarckism, Darwinism, Neo-Darwinism, Synthetic theory, neutral theory of
molecular evolution, concept of cladogenesis and anagenesis, punctuated equilibrium, selection.
Trends in Primate radiation; Primate classification and distribution of extinct and extant species.
Characteristics of primates: morphological (hair), skeletal (cranial, post cranial, dental, brain),
physical (opposability of thumb), locomotion (quadrupedalism, brachiation and bipedalism) and
posture, Primate social behaviour.
Distribution, characteristics and classification. Prosimii (Tarsiioidea, Lorisoidea, Lemuroidea),
Anthropoidea (Ceboidea, Cercopithecoidea, Hominoidea). Morphological and anatomical
characteristics of Human, Chimpanzee, Gorilla, Orangutan and Gibbon
Fossils of extinct Primates
Oligocene-Miocene fossils – Parapithecus; Gigantopithecus, Aegyptopithecus, Dryopithecus,
Ramapithecus and Sivapithecus.
Pre-hominid groups: Sahelanthropus tchadensis (Toumai), Orrorin tugenensis, Ardipithecus
Early Hominids: Australopithecus afarensis, Australopithecus ramidus, Australopithecus
africanus, Australopithecus (Paranthropous) boisei, Australopithecus (Paranthropous) robustus,
Early Transitional Human: Homo habilis.
Characteristics and distribution of Homo erectus in general, Special reference to the fossil
evidences discovered from Africa (Turkana boy), Asia (Java man and Peking man), Europe
(Dmanisi), Homo floresiensis (Dwarf variety)
Characteristics of Archaic sapiens with special reference to Europe (Homo heidelbergensis),
Africa (Rhodesian Man), Asia (China, Jinniushan; India, Narmada Man).
Neandertal man: Distribution, salient features and phylogenetic position.
Characteristics of anatomically Modern Homo sapiens with special reference to Africa (Omo),
Europe (Cro-magnon, Chancelade, Grimaldi), Asia (Jinniushan) and Australia (Lake Mungo).
Dispersal of modern humans: Out of Africa hypothesis, Multiregional hypothesis, Partial
Unit – III
Modern Human Variation: Typological Model, Populational Model and Clinal Model; overview
of Classification proposed by Blumenbach, Deniker, Hooton, Coon, Garn and Birdsell.
Ethnic Classification and distribution of Indian Populations: H.H. Risley; B. S. Guha; S. S.
Linguistic distribution of ethnic groups.
Methods of studying Human Genetics: Cytogenetics, Mendelian Genetics, Twin Genetics, Sib
Pair methods, Population Genetics, Molecular Genetics.
Cytogenetics: cell cycle, standard karyotyping and banding techniques (G, C and Q),
chromosomal abnormalities, fluorescent in situ hybridization, Lyon’s hypothesis, importance of
telomere and centromere.
Linkage and chromosome mapping, genetic imprinting.
Modes of inheritance: Autosomal (dominant, recessive, codominance), sex linked, sex
influenced, sex limited, modifying genes, suppressor genes, selfish gene, multiple allelic
inheritance, multifactorial inheritance (stature and skin colour), polygeneic (dermatoglyphicsFinger-ball Pattern types, Dankmeijer’s Index, Furuhata’s Index and Pattern Intensity Index,
Total Finger Ridge Count, Absolute Finger Ridge Count, Palmar formula and mainline index,
transversality, atd angle and flexion creases.
Population genetics: Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, definition and application; mating patterns
(random, assortative and consanguineous), inbreeding coefficient, genetic load, genetic isolate,
genetic drift, genetic distance); genetic polymorphisim (balanced and transient).
Molecular genetics: DNA, RNA, genetic code, protein structure and synthesis, concepts of
RFLPs, VNTRs, STRs, and SNPs, Mitrochondrial DNA, genic and genomic mutations.
Unit – IV
Human Growth, development and maturation: definition, concepts. Basic principles of growth;
phases of growth: Prenatal and postnatal (growth and development of different body parts,
subcutaneous tissues and physiological variables). Growth curves: Velocity, Distance,
Acceleration and Scammon’s Growth curve. Catch up and Catch down growth.
Aging and senescence with special reference to somatic, skeletal and dental maturation
Factors affecting growth: Genetic and Environmental. Secular trends in growth.
Methods of studying human growth: Longitudinal, Cross-sectional, Mixed longitudinal, Linked
Body composition: Bone mass, body mass, percentage of body fat, segmental fat, body age.
Human Adaptation: Allen’s and Bergmann’s rule; Human Adaptability Programme; human
adaptation to heat, cold, high altitude.
Somatotyping: Concept, Development (Kretschmer, Sheldon, Parnoll, Health-Carter) and its
Demography: Multidisciplinary nature of demography and its relation with other disciplines.
Relationship between demography and anthropological demography. Fertility (concept and
determinants), Morbidity and mortality (concept and determinants), Migration (concept and
determinants), Selection intensity.
Unit – V
Concept of prehistoric archaeology; ethno-archaeology, experimental archaeology,
environmental archaeology, settlement archaeology, cognitive archaeology, geo-archaeology,
action archaeology. Theoretical paradigms – descriptive to scientific period to interpretative
Typology, seriation, geo-archaeological, obsidian, hydration, chemical dating of bones, oxygen
isotope, fluorine estimation, dendrochronology, radio-carbon, fission track, thermo-
luminescence, potassium-argon, varve clay, cross dating, amino acid racemization,
Major geological stages (Tertiary, Quaternary, Pleistocene, Holocene). Major climatic changes
during Pleistocene and post Pleistocene periods, glacial and interglacial periods, ice age, pluvial
and inter-pluvial climatic phases. Evidences of quarternary climatic changes (moraines, varve,
river terraces, loess, sea level changes, beach sequences, sea core, fluviatile deposits, palynology,
palaeontology). Site formation.
Lithic tool typology and technology:
Lower Palaeolithic (pebble tools, chopper and chopping tools, bifaces, handaxes and cleavers);
Middle Palaeolithic (Clactonean, Levalloisian and Mousterian flakes, discoid cores, tortoise core,
fluted core, scrapers, point); Upper Palaeolithic (blade, knife, blunted back, borer, burin, points);
Mesolithic (microliths); Neolithic (ring stone, grind stone, celt, adze).
Overview of Lithic Cultures of Europe:
Lower Palaeolithic: Acheulian culture.
Middle Palaeolithic: Mousterian culture.
Upper Palaeolithic: Perigordian, Chatelperronian, Gravettian, Aurignacian, Solutrian,
Mesolithic: Azilian, Tardenoisean, Maglamosean, Kitchen Midden, Natufian.
Early Farming Cultures and Neolithic of the Near East: Sites like Jericho, Jarmo, Çatal
Unit – VI
Lower Palaeolithic Period in India
Pebble tool culture: Soan
Acheulian culture: Madrasian (Kortalayar Valley), Attirmpakkam, Didwana, Belan Valley,
Bhimbetka, Chirki-Nevasa, Hunsgi, Krishna Valley. Importance of Hathnora, Narmada valley.
Middle Palaeolithic period in India: Belan valley, Bhimbetka, Nevasa, Narmada valley.
Upper Palaeolithic period in India: Renigunta, Billa Surgam, Patne, Bhimbetka, Son and
Belan Valleys, Visadi, Pushkar, Gunjan Valley.
Mesolithic period in India: Mesolithic economy and society. Post Pleistocene environmental
changes. Development in microlithic technology, composite tools and bows and arrows. Sites
include Bagor, Tilwara, Langhnaj, Adamgarh, Bagor, Chopani Mando, Bhimbetka, Sarai Nahar
Neolithic Period in India: Economic and social consequences of food production. Settlements,
population growth, craft specializations, class formation and political institutions. Sites like
Burzahom, Gufkral, Ahar, Gilund, Nagada, Kayatha, Navdatoli, Eran, Nevasa, Chandoli,
Daimabad, Inamgaon, Prakash, Maski, Brahmagiri, Sangankallu, Tekkalkota, Piklihal,
Nagarjunakonda, Daojali Hading, Kuchai, Sarutadu.
Prehistoric Cave art from India: Bhimbetka, Adamgarh.
Indus Civilization: Expansion of village sites. Development of metal technology, art and
writing. Architecture and city planning. Stages and theories of decline. Sites like Amri, Kot Diji,
Kalibangan, Mohenjodaro, Harappa, Lothal, Dholavira, Rakhigarhi.
Pottery and Traditions: Ochre Coloured Pottery (OCP), Black and Red ware, Painted Grey
Ware (PGW), Northern Black Polished Ware (NBP). Distribution of the pottery types and
Bronze/Copper Age: General characteristics, distribution, people.
Iron Age and Urban Revolution: General characteristics, distribution, people.
Megaliths: concept and types (menhir, dolmen, topical, cist, cairn circle, sarcophagi)
Unit – VII
Conceptual Understanding of Social Anthropology:
Culture: Attributes, Holism, Universals, Acculturation, Enculturation, Transculturation, Culture
Change, Culture Shock, Cultural Relativism, Civilization, Folk-Urban Continuum, Great and
Little Tradition, Cultural Pluralism and World-View.
Society: Groups, Institutions, Associations, Community, Status and Role. Incest. Endogamy and
Exogamy. Rites of passage.
Family: Definitions, universality of the family. Typological and Processual methods of studying
the family. Types of family – conjugal-natal, consanguineal, nuclear, joint, extended. Rules of
residence – Patrilocal, Matrilocal, Ambilocal, Bilocal, Neolocal, Avunculocal, Virilocal,
Amitalocal, Uxorilocal. Functions of family, Trends of change – urbanization, globalization,
industrialization, feminist movements.
Marriage: Definition, universality, types and functions (monogamy, polygamy – polyandry,
polygyny, hypogamy, hypergamy, levirate, sororate). Preferential and Prescriptive types. Types
and forms of marital transactions – bride price and dowry. Marriage as exchange.
Kinship: Definition, Descent, kinship terminology, matrilineal puzzle. Joking and avoidance.
moiety, phratry, clan and lineage. Types of kinship systems.
Economic Anthropology: Definition and relationship with Anthropology and Economy.
Theories (Malinowski, Formal, Substantivist, Marxist). Livelihoods, Subsistence, Principles of
production, distribution, consumption; division of labour in hunting-gathering, pastoral, swidden
and agricultural communities. Exchange, reciprocity, gifts and barter systems. Kula, Potlatch and
Jajmani – Anthropological explanations.
Legal Anthropology: Anthropology of Law, Social Sanctions.
Political Organization: Definitions, political processes in band, tribe, chiefdom and state
systems. Conflicts and social control. Nations and Nation-state, democracy.
Religion and Belief Systems: Definitions, animism, animatism, manaism, bongaism, totemism,
taboo. Religious specialists – witch, shaman, priest, medicine-man, sorcerer. Magic – definitions,
types, approaches. Rituals.
Social Change: Basic ideas and concepts (Assimilation, Integration, Syncretism, Dominance
and Subjugation), Approaches.
Theories in Social Anthropology
Evolutionism – Tylor, Morgan, Fraser, Maine, McLennan.
Diffusionism – Three schools (Austro-German, British, American).
Historical Particularism – Boas.
Functionalism – Malinowski.
Structural-Functionalism – Radcliffe-Brown, Firth, Fortes, Eggan, Parsons.
Structuralism – Levi-Strauss.
Culture and Personality/Psychological Anthropology – Mead, Benedict, DuBois, Linton,
Kardiner, Whiting and Child.
Cultural Ecology, Environmental Anthropology, Neo-evolutionism (Leslie White, Julian
Steward, Marshall Sahlins).
Cultural Materialism – Marvin Harris.
Symbolic Anthropology – Victor Turner, Raymond Firth, Mary Douglas.
Cognitive Anthropology – Roy D’Andrade, Stephen Tyler, Ward Goodenough.
Deep Ethnography, Interpretive Anthropology – Clifford Geertz.
Anthropology and Gender – Leela Dube, Renato Rosaldo, Marilyn Strathern, Zora Neale Hutson.
Postmodernism, Poststructuralism, Postcolonialism – Foucault, Derrida, Bourdieu.
Ethnicity – Barth, Jeffery, Weber.
UNIT – IX
Stages in the Development of Indian Anthropology
Concepts: Social Stratification (eg. Caste), Scheduled Caste (SC), Dalit, OBC, Nomadic
Groups. Revivalist/Nativist movements, Peasant movements (Malabar and Telengana
Tribe, Scheduled Tribe (ST), Particularly Vulnerable Groups (PVTGs), Tribal movements (Birsa
and Naga movements), Tribal Development, Distribution.
Indian Village and Village Studies in India (S.C. Dube, McKim Marriott, Weiser, Scarlett
Epstein, M.N. Srinivas, F.G. Bailey)
Constitutional Safeguards for SC and ST, Inclusion and Exclusion. Panchayati Raj Institutions
and other traditional community political organizations, Self-Help Groups (SHGs).
Theoretical ideas: Sanskritization, Westernization, Modernization, Globalization, Sacred
Complex, Nature-Man-Spirit Complex.
Early Indian Anthropologists and their contributions: G.S. Ghurye, B.S. Guha, S.C. Roy,
Iravati Karve, L.P. Vidyarthi, S.C. Dube, M.N. Srinivas, N.K. Bose, Surajit Sinha, D.N.
Majumdar, S.R.K. Chopra, Verrier Elwin, S.S. Sarkar, Dharani Sen, T.C. Das, P.C. Biswas.
Unit – X
Concepts and Theories: Applied Anthropology, Action Anthropology, Engaged Anthropology,
Experimental Anthropology, Urban Anthropology,Public Anthropology, Public Archaeology,
Anthropology of Development, Medical Anthropology, Visual Anthropology, Genomic Studies,
Genetic Screening and Counseling, Forensic Anthropology, Food and Nutritional Anthropology,
Ergonomics, Kinanthropometry, Business Anthropology.
Community Development Projects (Rural, Urban and Tribal); Revisits, Re-studies,
Reinterpretations, Intervention, Research Process and Social Impact Assessment (SIA).
Anthropological approaches in community studies: public health, education, nutrition, land
alienation, bonded labour, housing, alternative economy, livelihood, gender issues, relief,
rehabilitation and relocation, identity crisis, communication, training and management, aging and
Development Strategies (Plan/Sub Plan).
Role of NGOs in Development. Anthropology and NGOs.
Empowerment of Women, LGBT groups.