UNIVERSITY GRANTS COMMISSION
Subject: ELECTRONIC SCIENCE Code No. : (88)
Introduction to Semiconductor, energy bands in solids, concept of effective mass, density of states, Fermi
levels. PN Junction, Diode equation and diode equivalent circuit, Breakdown in diodes, Zener diode,
Tunnel diode, Metal semiconductor junction – Ohmic and Schottky contacts, Characteristics and
equivalent circuits of JFET, MOSFET. Low dimensional semiconductor devices – quantum wells,
quantum wires, quantum dots. High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT), Solar cells – I-V
characteristics, fill factor and efficiency, LED, LCD and flexible display devices.
Emerging materials for future Devices: Graphene, Carbon Nano tubes (CNT), ZnO, SiC etc.
IC fabrication – crystal growth, epitaxy, oxidation, lithography, doping, etching, isolation methods,
metallization, bonding, Thin film deposition and characterization Techniques: XRD, TEM, SEM, EDX,
Thin film active and passive devices, MOS technology and VLSI, scaling of MOS devices, NMOS and
CMOS structures and fabrication, Characteristics of MOS transistors and threshold voltage, NMOS and
CMOS inverters, Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) – structure, charge storage and transfer, Basics of VLSI
design, stick diagrams, Layout design rules.
Superposition, Thevenin, Norton and Maximum Power Transfer Theorems, Network elements, Network
graphs, Nodal and Mesh analysis. Laplace Transform, Fourier Transform and Z-transform. Time and
frequency domain response, Passive filters, Two-port Network Parameters : Z, Y, ABCD and h
parameters, Transfer functions, Signal representation, State variable method of circuit analysis, AC circuit
analysis, Transient analysis, Zero and Poles, Bode Plots.
Continuous time signals, Fourier Series and Fourier transform representations, Sampling theorem and
applications, Discrete time signal, Discrete Fourier transform (DFT), Fast Fourier transform (FFT), Basic
concepts of digital signal processing, digital filters – IIR, FIR.
UNIT – IV
Rectifiers, Voltage regulated ICs and regulated power supply, Biasing of Bipolar junction transistors and
FETs, operating point and stability, Amplifiers, Classification of amplifiers, Concept of feedback,
Hartley, Colpitt’s and Phase Shift oscillators, Operational amplifiers (OPAMP) – characteristics,
computational applications, comparators, Schmitt trigger, Instrumentation amplifiers, wave shaping
circuits, Phase locked loops, Active filters, Multivibrators, Voltage to frequency convertors (V/F),
frequency to voltage convertors (F/V).
Logic Families, Logic Gates, Boolean algebra and minimization techniques, Combinational circuits,
Programmable Logic Devices (PLD), CPLD, flip-flops, memories, Sequential Circuits: Counters – Ring,
Ripple, Synchronous, Asynchronous, Shift registers, multiplexers and demultiplexers, A/D and D/A
converters, Analysis and Design of fundamental mode state machines: State variables, State table and
State diagram. Sequential PLD, FPGA, Analysis and Design of digital circuits using HDL.
Introduction of Microprocessor 8086: Architecture, Addressing modes, instruction set, interrupts,
Programming, Memory and I/O interfacing.
Introduction of Microcontrollers – 8051 for embedded systems, Architecture and register set of
Microcontroller 8051, Addressing modes, Instruction set of 8051 – Data transfer instructions, Arithmetic
instructions, Logic instructions, bit level and byte level control transfer instructions, 8051 assembly
programming – stack operations, subroutines, interrupts, 8051 programming as timer/counter, 8051 serial
communication, 8051 interfacing RS232, LED/LCD display, Keyboard , Stepper motor.
Electrostatics – vector calculus, Gauss’s Law, Laplace and Poisson’s equations, Magnetostatics – Biot
Savert’s law, Ampere’s law and electromagnetic induction, Maxwell’s equations and wave equations,
Plane wave propagation in free space, dielectrics and conductors, Poynting theorem, Reflection and
refraction, polarization, interference, coherence and diffraction, Transmission lines and waveguides – line
equations, impedance, reflections and voltage standing wave ratio, rectangular waveguides. Antennas –
retarded potential and Hertzian dipole, half wave antenna, antenna patterns, radiation intensity, gain,
effective area and Frii’s free space receiver power equation.
Microwave Sources and Devices -Reflex Klystron, Magnetron, TWT, Gunn diode, IMPATT diode,
Crystal Detector and PIN diode.
Radar – block diagram of Radar, frequencies and power used, Radar range equation.
Analog modulation and demodulation – AM, FM and PM, Principle of super heterodyne receiver,
Random signals, noise, noise temperature and noise figure, Basic concepts of information theory, Error
detection and correction, Digital modulation and demodulation – PCM, ASK, FSK, PSK, BPSK, QPSK
and QAM, Time and Frequency-Division Multiplexing, Multiple Access techniques, Data
Communications – Modems, Codes, Principles of Mobile and Satellite Communication, Optical
communication, Optical sources – LED, spontaneous and stimulated emission, semiconductor Lasers,
Detectors – PIN photodiodes, Avalanche photodiodes (APD), Optical fibers – attenuation and dispersion
characteristics, Bandwidth, Wavelength division multiplexing.
Fundamentals of Internet of Things (IoT) for communication.
Power devices – characteristics of SCR, DIAC, TRIAC, power transistors, Protection of thyristors against
over voltage and over current. SCR triggering – dv/dt and di/dt, triggering with single pulse and train of
pulses, A.C. and D.C. motors – construction and speed control. Switched Mode Power Supply (SMPS).
Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS).
Open loop and closed loop control system, Block Diagram reduction techniques, transfer function and
signal flow diagram, Stability criterion: Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist plot, On-off controller, Proportional
(P), Proportional-Integral (PI), Proportional-Derivative (PD), PID controllers.
UNIT – X
Transducers – Resistance, Inductance, Capacitance, Piezoelectric, Thermoelectric, Hall effect,
Photoelectric, Measurement of displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, torque, strain, temperature,
pressure, flow, humidity, thickness, pH. Measuring Equipment – Measurement of R, L and C, Bridge and
Potentiometers, voltage, current, power, energy, frequency/time, phase, Digital Multimeters, CRO,
Digital Storage Oscilloscope, Spectrum Analyzer., Biomedical Instruments – ECG, EEG, Blood Pressure
Measurements, MEMS and its applications Sensors for IoT applications.