Unit – I
Meaning and concepts of Culture:
Traditional and Modern concepts of Culture-Notions of Culture in
textual tradition, anthropological, archaeological and sociological
understanding of the term culture. Elements of Culture, concept of
Indianness and value system. Relation between culture and
civilization. Historiography and approaches to the study of Indian
Culture– Stereotypes, Objectivity and Bias, Imperialist, Nationalist,
Marxist and Subaltern. Heritage of India and world’s debt to Indian
Sources of the Study of Indian Culture
Archaeological: cultural remains, Monuments, Numismatics,
Epigraphy; Literary sources and Oral traditions; Foreign Accounts;
Unit – III
Pre-historic and Proto-historic Cultures
Stone age cultures- palaeolithic, mesolithic and neolithic; Protohistoric cultures – chalcolithic horizon, Harappan Culture- current
debates on nomenclature and scripts, Town planning and
architecture, art, social, religious and economic life. Evolution of
India’s main language families.
UNIVERSITY GRANTS COMMISSION
Vedic and post-Vedic Period
Early Vedic and later Vedic ideas and institutions: social, religious,
economic, political and scientific. Post Vedic– Religious Movements
and emergence of states, Shramana traditions- Buddhism, Jainism,
Ajivikas and other sects. Education system and centres– Taxila and
Mauryan and Post-Mauryan period
Ideas and Institutions: Social, Religious, Economic and Political.
Ashoka’s Dhamma. Scripts- Brahmi and Kharosthi. Impact of Foreign
Invasions. Art and Architecture. Literature- Arthasashtra, Manusmriti,
Natyashastra, Panchatantra, Buddhacharit and Saundarananda.
Scientific Achievements- Nagarjuna, Sushruta and Charaka.
Education System and Centres. Sangam Age- Society and Culture.
Contacts with outside world.
Unit – VI
Gupta and Post-Gupta period,
Ideas and Institutions: social, religious, philosophical, economic and
political. Scientific Achievements- Mathematics, Astronomy,
Metallurgy. Art and Architecture- evolution of Temples, Paintings of
Ajanta and Bagh. Literature- Kalidasa, Banabhatta, Bharavi, Magha,
Bhavabhuti, Dandi. Canonical Texts- Vishnu Dharmottara Purana.
Education system and centres- Nalanda, Valabhi. Contacts with
Early Medieval Period
Legacies of Classical ideas and emergence of new trends: SocietyProliferation of castes, outcastes, Vishti, Slavery. Position of women.
Polity- feudalism. Economy- de-urbanization and agrarian system.
Religion: Vedic-Puranic, Shramana tradition, Tantra, Bhakti
movements. Philosophical thoughts- Shaddarshana. PhilosophersShankara, Ramanuja. Pilgrimmage tradition. Art and ArchitectureNagara, Dravida, Bhumija, Vesara. Education system and centresVikramashila, Nalanda etc. Scientific achievements- Mathematics,
Astronomy. Literature- Kalhana’s Rajatarangini and Al-Birunis’ Kitabul Hind. Contacts with Islam. Canonical texts- Samaranganasutradhara, Manasara, Bhuvanapradeepa, Sadhanamala.
Delhi Sultanate – Ideas and Institutions: Political- Iqta; impact of the
new ruling class on society. Economic- market reforms, growth of
new urban centres, percolation of Islam in rural areas, resistance and
acceptance. Extent of slavery. Religion- Acharya traditions, Bhakti
tradition, Kabir and Ravidas, emergence of Sufism – Chishti and
Suhrawardy. Art and Architecture- emergence of Sultanate school of
architecture and paintings, regional styles. Religious and secular
structures. Literature – Sanskrit, Persian, Regional languages and
emergence of Hindawi. Amir Khusrau, Chandabardai. Education
system. Vijay Nagar Empire: Ideas and Institutions – political –
Nayankara. Art and Architecture, Literature. Educational institutions.
Unit – IX
Ideas and Institutions: Polity – Mansab and Jagir, Watan Jagir,
Economy – Zamindari and Zabt. Society – Aristocracy, emergence of
middle classes, labourers, Slaves. Position of Women.
Religion and Philosophy – growth of Vaishnava Bhakti, Panthiesm
and Sufi traditions. Sulh-i kul, Naqshabandis. Gurunanaka, Chaitanya
Mahaprabhu, Meerabai, Narayanabhatta, Raghunandana. Literaturedevelopment in Sanskrit, Persian and vernacular languagesTulasidasa, Suradasa, Abdur Rahim Khan-i-khanan, Abdul Fazl,
Faizi, Badauni, Banarasidas (Ardhakathanaka). Translation of
religious texts by Akbar and Dara-Shukoh. Art and Architecture–
Emergence of Mughal Schools; Temples of Vrindavan– Gobinda
Deva and Keshava Das Temple; Four Quarter Gardens. Introduction
of new education curricullum from Akbar’s period onwards Dars-inizami. Religious syncretism in coinage, miniatures and structures.
Science and Technology. – Introduction of mechanical devices,
pindrum gearing and astrolabe; Sawai Jai Singh’s observatories.
Arrival of Europeans and their impact – Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch,
Unit – X
Emergence of successor states and cultural developments: Awadh,
Hyderabad, Mysore, Marathas and Rajputana. Impact of Western
ideas and Indian responses: European studies of India; William Jones
and Asiatic Society; Fort William College; influence of Christian
missionaries. Emergence and Development of New Education
System. Indian Cultural Renaissance. Socio-Religious reform
movements: Reformists- Brahama Samaja, Aligarh Movement,
Ramakrishna Mission and Theosophical Society; Revivalist- Wahabi
and Arya Samaj Movement. Dalit Movements; Sikh reform
movements. Administrative Measures: legislation on women,
education and social evils. Literature: emergence of Shahr Ashob;
Urdu– Mirza Ghalib, Allama Iqbal; Hindi- Bhartendu Harishchand,
Prem Chand; Bengali-Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Rabindranath
Tagore, Qazi Nazrul Islam. Science and Technology: emergence of
modern science and technology.