UNIVERSITY GRANTS COMMISSION
Subject: Museology and Conservation Code No.: 66
Unit I: Introduction to Museum and Museology
Definitions and concepts of museum, ecomuseum, community museum, virtual
museum, neighborhood museum, etc.
Definitions and concept of museology, new museology, meta museology,
Early collections, ancient and medieval prototypes of museums. History, growth
and development of museums in Indian and global context.
Classification and types of museums.
Functions and role of museums.
Role of national and international professional organizations – Museums
Association (U.K.), Museums Association of India, UNESCO, ICOM, ICCROM,
Commonwealth Association of Museums, American Alliance of Museums, IASC,
IIC, IUCN, UNESCO-ICOM Museum Information Center, etc.
ICOM code of ethics.
Unit II: Collection Management
Purposes of collecting. Scope of collections – tangible and intangible.
Ethics of collecting. Collection management policy including acquisitions,disposal,
loaning, insurance, etc.
Methods of collecting tangible and intangible heritage.
Methods of authenticating museum objects.
Collection holding areas for tangible and intangible collections – accessibility,
retrieval, storage systems and preventive conservation measures.
Collection security. Guidelines for handling, packing and transporting collections.
Unit III: Documentation and Research of Tangible and Intangible Collections
Purposes of documenting museum collections
Ethics of documentation.
Documentation policy and procedures.
Types of documents – entry, accession, classified, and movement registers; index
and catalogue cards. Digital documentation.
Numbering the objects – numbering systems, procedure of applying numbers on
Documentation standards – format of various types of documents. Use of standard
terminology. Concept of Object ID.
Objectives and scope of collection research. Models of collection research.
Unit IV: Museum Exhibitions
Museum exhibition as a communication system. Models of communication in the
context of exhibitions.
Ethics of exhibitions.
Types of exhibitions on the basis of duration, location, arrangement of objects/
specimen and purpose.
Components of exhibitions – objects/ specimen, communication media, text,
exhibition furniture and accessories. Spatial and other relationships between
Exhibition text – Types of labels, assessing reading and comprehensibility of text,
typography, designing and preparation of labels.
Exhibition lighting – Basic considerations while using light, types of light sources,
different types of lamps, recent trends: fibre optics, track lighting, computer
Planning and designing exhibitions – stages of planning; exhibition brief; using
principles of design, ergonomics, colour, texture and light in exhibitions.
Orientation. Circulation of visitors. Signage. Use of multi-media.
Designing exhibition furniture, dioramas, and historical settings.
Evaluation – front-end analysis, formative and summative evaluation.
Unit V: Museum Education, Interpretation and Publications
Role and potential of museums in informal, non-formal and formal education/
Museums and life long learning. Barriers to learning in museums. Education versus
Ethics of museum education.
Museum education policy. Theories of learning. Characteristics of learning in
Various learning activities such as guides tours, lectures, talks, storytelling,
workbooks, workshops, demonstrations, drama, role play, live interpretation,
digital methods, etc. for different target groups.
Making learning opportunities accessible to persons with disabilities.
Museum extension services – travelling and mobile exhibitions, school loan kits,
community programmes, excursions, field trips, heritage walks, etc. Extension
through digital media.
Museum publication – purpose and types.
Feedback – purposes and methods
Unit VI: Conservation of Collections — Part I
Definitions of conservation – preventive, remedial and restoration. Terminology
used in conservation.
Nature and properties of material of collections – organic, inorganic and
composite. Susceptibility of materials to different agents of decay.
Ethics of conservation.
Conservation policy. Conservation audit.
Causes and types of deterioration – environmental: effects of light, humidity,
temperature and pollution; biological: fungi, insects, rodents and birds; human –
carelessness, mishandling and wrong treatment; disasters: fire, flood, earthquake,
Preventive conservation: significance and effectiveness, and implementation in
storage, exhibitions and transit through –
Environmental control – monitoring of light and UV radiations, R.H., Temperature
and pollutants and application of control measures. Tools and equipments used in
monitoring and control.
Integrated Pest Management – identification, control and termination of pests.
Various fungicides, insecticides and rodenticides used in IPM.
Good practices of Housekeeping and Rules of handling museum objects. Tools,
materials and equipments used in housekeeping and handling.
Unit VII: Conservation of Collections — Part II
Methodology of remedial conservation – techniques of examination, diagnosis of
type and extent of decay, documentation and testing of probable treatments,
treatment of objects using suitable materials and method. Recommendations for
Materials, equipment, tools and techniques used in remedial conservation of
following materials –
i. Paper and archival materials
ii. Paintings on different substrate such as wall, canvas, paper, wood, textiles,
iii. Textiles and costumes
iv. wood, skin material, bone, horn and ivory
v. metallic objects made of iron, copper, bronze and silver
vi. stone objects
vi. ceramic and glass
vii. Biological specimens
Health and safety issues.
Unit VIII: Museum Management
Concept of Management : Foundations and evolution. Essential components of
management : decision making and leadership.
Functions of management:
Planning: Types of plans – Vision and mission statements, objectives, policies,
Procedures, rules, strategies, action plans, and contingency plans.
Planning process, MBO, Strategic planning, Use of Critical Path method
and Simple Bar method in planning.
Organization Design – staff structures, job descriptions, authority and
Staffing – Framing recruitment rules, methods of recruitment, training and
development of human resource. Performance appraisal.
Controlling — process and methods of control.
Financing — sources of fund generation, Budget and budgeting
Prevention of harassment in work place.
Museum security – Risk assessment and management. Manual, physical and
electronic security. Security procedures. Fire safety.
Disaster management – preparation, prevention, response and recovery.
Unit IX: Museum Marketing and Public Relations
Meaning and purpose of marketing and its role in museums. Marketing
Concept and types of products. Product Life cycle and marketing strategies at
different stages. Museum as a multiproduct organization and a service.
Segmentation and target marketing – significance, bases and approaches.
Marketing Mix – Product, Price, Promotion and Place: significance, tools and
Marketing Research – purpose, types and methods.
Marketing versus Public Relations. Definitions and significance of Public
Relations. Foundational Principles of Public relations.
Tools, tactics and strategies of Public Relations. Media relations. Public relations
Unit X: Legislation and Conventions Related to Museums and Heritage
The Indian Treasure Trove Act, 1878
The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958
The Antiquities and Art Treasures Act, 1972
The Wild Life Protection Act, 1972
Persons with disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full
Participation) Act, 1995
Right to information Act, 2005
UNESCO World Heritage Convention, 1972
Convention on International Trade in Endangered species of Wild Flora and Fauna
The Venice Charter, 1964
The UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural