UNIVERSITY GRANTS COMMISSION
Subject: PSYCHOLOGY Code No. 04
1. Emergence of Psychology
Psychological thought in some major Eastern Systems: Bhagavad Gita,
Buddhism, Sufism and Integral Yoga. Academic psychology in India: Preindependence era; post-independence era; 1970s: The move to addressing social
issues; 1980s: Indigenization; 1990s: Paradigmatic concerns, disciplinary identity
crisis; 2000s: Emergence of Indian psychology in academia. Issues: The colonial
encounter; Post colonialism and psychology; Lack of distinct disciplinary identity.
Western: Greek heritage, medieval period and modern period. Structuralism,
Functionalism, Psychoanalytical, Gestalt, Behaviorism, HumanisticExistential, Transpersonal, Cognitive revolution, Multiculturalism. Four
founding paths of academic psychology – Wundt, Freud, James, Dilthey.
Issues: Crisis in psychology due to strict adherence to experimentalanalytical paradigm (logical empiricism). Indic influences on modern
Essential aspects of knowledge paradigms: Ontology, epistemology, and
methodology. Paradigms of Western Psychology: Positivism, Post-Positivism,
Critical perspective, Social Constructionism, Existential Phenomenology, and
Co-operative Enquiry. Paradigmatic Controversies. Significant Indian
paradigms on psychological knowledge: Yoga, Bhagavad Gita, Buddhism,
Sufism, and Integral Yoga. Science and spirituality (avidya and vidya). The
primacy of self-knowledge in Indian psychology.
2. Research Methodology and Statistics
Research: Meaning, Purpose, and Dimensions.
Research problems, Variables and Operational Definitions, Hypothesis,
Ethics in conducting and reporting research
Paradigms of research: Quantitative, Qualitative, Mixed methods approach
Methods of research: Observation, Survey [Interview, Questionnaires],
Experimental, Quasi-experimental, Field studies, Cross-Cultural Studies,
Phenomenology, Grounded theory, Focus groups, Narratives, Case studies,
Statistics in Psychology: Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion.
Normal Probability Curve. Parametric [t-test] and Non-parametric tests [Sign
Test, Wilcoxon Signed rank test, Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test,
Friedman]. Power analysis. Effect size.
Correlational Analysis: Correlation [Product Moment, Rank Order], Partial
correlation, multiple correlation.
Special Correlation Methods: Biserial, Point biserial, tetrachoric, phi
Regression: Simple linear regression, Multiple regression.
Factor analysis: Assumptions, Methods, Rotation and Interpretation.
Experimental Designs: ANOVA [One-way, Factorial], Randomized Block
Designs, Repeated Measures Design, Latin Square, Cohort studies, Time
series, MANOVA, ANCOVA. Single-subject designs.
3. Psychological testing
Types of tests
Test construction: Item writing, item analysis
Test standardization: Reliability, validity and Norms
Areas of testing: Intelligence, creativity, neuropsychological tests, aptitude,
Personality assessment, interest inventories
Attitude scales – Semantic differential, Staples, Likert scale.
Computer-based psychological testing
Applications of psychological testing in various settings: Clinical,
Organizational and business, Education, Counseling, Military. Career
4. Biological basis of behavior
Sensory systems: General and specific sensations, receptors and processes
Neurons: Structure, functions, types, neural impulse, synaptic transmission.
The Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems – Structure and functions.
Methods of Physiological Psychology: Invasive methods – Anatomical
methods, degeneration techniques, lesion techniques, chemical methods,
microelectrode studies. Non-invasive methods – EEG, Scanning methods.
Muscular and Glandular system: Types and functions
Biological basis of Motivation: Hunger, Thirst, Sleep and Sex.
Biological basis of emotion: The Limbic system, Hormonal regulation of
Genetics and behavior: Chromosomal anomalies; Nature-Nurture
controversy [Twin studies and adoption studies]
5. Attention, Perception, Learning, Memory and Forgetting
Attention: Forms of attention, Models of attention
Approaches to the Study of Perception: Gestalt and physiological approaches
Perceptual Organization: Gestalt, Figure and Ground, Law of Organization
Perceptual Constancy: Size, Shape, and Color; Illusions
Perception of Form, Depth and Movement
Role of motivation and learning in perception
Signal detection theory: Assumptions and applications
Subliminal perception and related factors, information processing approach
to perception, culture and perception, perceptual styles, Pattern recognition,
Ecological perspective on perception.
Fundamental theories: Thorndike, Guthrie, Hull
Classical Conditioning: Procedure, phenomena and related issues
Instrumental learning: Phenomena, Paradigms and theoretical issues;
Reinforcement: Basic variables and schedules; Behaviour modification and
Cognitive approaches in learning: Latent learning, observational learning.
Verbal learning and Discrimination learning
Recent trends in learning: Neurophysiology of learning
Memory and Forgetting
Memory processes: Encoding, Storage, Retrieval
Stages of memory: Sensory memory, Short-term memory (Working
memory), Long-term Memory (Declarative – Episodic and Semantic;
Theories of Forgetting: Interference, Retrieval Failure, Decay, Motivated
6. Thinking, Intelligence and Creativity
Theoretical perspectives on thought processes: Associationism, Gestalt,
Information processing, Feature integration model
Concept formation: Rules, Types, and Strategies; Role of concepts in thinking
Types of Reasoning
Language and thought
Problem solving: Type, Strategies, and Obstacles
Decision-making: Types and models
Metacognition: Metacognitive knowledge and Metacognitive regulation
Intelligence: Spearman; Thurstone; Jensen; Cattell; Gardner; Stenberg;
Goleman; Das, Kar & Parrila
Creativity: Torrance, Getzels & Jackson, Guilford, Wallach & Kogan
Relationship between Intelligence and Creativity
7. Personality, Motivation, emotion, stress and coping
Determinants of personality: Biological and socio-cultural
Approaches to the study of personality: Psychoanalytical, Neo-Freudian,
Social learning, Trait and Type, Cognitive, Humanistic, Existential,
Other theories: Rotter’s Locus of Control, Seligman’s Explanatory styles,
Kohlberg’s theory of Moral development.
Basic motivational concepts: Instincts, Needs, Drives, Arousal, Incentives,
Approaches to the study of motivation: Psychoanalytical, Ethological, S-R
Exploratory behavior and curiosity
Zuckerman’s Sensation seeking
Achievement, Affiliation and Power
Emotions: Physiological correlates
Theories of emotions: James-Lange, Canon-Bard, Schachter and Singer,
Conflicts: Sources and types
Stress and Coping: Concept, Models, Type A, B, C, D behaviors, Stress
management strategies [Biofeedback, Music therapy, Breathing exercises,
Progressive Muscular Relaxation, Guided Imagery, Mindfulness, Meditation,
Yogasana, Stress Inoculation Training].
8. Social Psychology
Nature, scope and history of social psychology
Traditional theoretical perspectives: Field theory, Cognitive Dissonance,
Sociobiology, Psychodynamic Approaches, Social Cognition.
Social perception [Communication, Attributions]; attitude and its change
within cultural context; prosocial behavior
Group and Social influence [Social Facilitation; Social loafing]; Social
influence [Conformity, Peer Pressure, Persuasion, Compliance, Obedience,
Social Power, Reactance]. Aggression. Group dynamics, leadership style and
effectiveness. Theories of intergroup relations [Minimal Group Experiment
and Social Identity Theory, Relative Deprivation Theory, Realistic Conflict
Theory, Balance Theories, Equity Theory, Social Exchange Theory]
Applied social psychology: Health, Environment and Law; Personal space,
crowding, and territoriality.
9. Human Development and Interventions
Developmental processes: Nature, Principles, Factors in development, Stages
of Development. Successful aging.
Theories of development: Psychoanalytical, Behavioristic, and Cognitive
Various aspects of development: Sensory-motor, cognitive, language,
emotional, social and moral.
Psychopathology: Concept, Mental Status Examination, Classification, Causes
Psychotherapies: Psychoanalysis, Person-centered, Gestalt, Existential,
Acceptance Commitment Therapy, Behavior therapy, REBT, CBT, MBCT, Play
therapy, Positive psychotherapy, Transactional Analysis, Dialectic behavior
therapy, Art therapy, Performing Art Therapy, Family therapy.
Applications of theories of motivation and learning in School
Factors in educational achievement
Guidance in schools: Needs, organizational set up and techniques
Counselling: Process, skills, and techniques
10. Emerging Areas
Issues of Gender, Poverty, Disability, and Migration: Cultural bias and
discrimination. Stigma, Marginalization, and Social Suffering; Child Abuse
and Domestic violence.
Peace psychology: Violence, non-violence, conflict resolution at macro level,
role of media in conflict resolution.
Wellbeing and self-growth: Types of wellbeing [Hedonic and Eudemonic],
Character strengths, Resilience and Post-Traumatic Growth.
Health: Health promoting and health compromising behaviors, Life style and
Chronic diseases [Diabetes, Hypertension, Coronary Heart Disease],
Psychoneuroimmunology [Cancer, HIV/AIDS]
Psychology and technology interface: Digital learning; Digital etiquette:
Cyber bullying; Cyber pornography: Consumption, implications; Parental
mediation of Digital Usage.